The general name for the spruce of Pinaceae. Evergreen trees with straight trunks. China is the country with the largest number of spruce plants. There are 16 species and 9 varieties, distributed in the mountains and sub-alpine areas of Northeast China, North China, Northwest China, Southwest China and Taiwan. Especially in Hengduan Mountain, the species is the most abundant and the wood stock is abundant. The earliest fossils of the spruce were found in the Late Cretaceous strata in the western United States and Japan. From the end of the Tertiary to the Quaternary Pleistocene, due to the global temperature drop of the red spruce, the spruce expanded from high latitudes and high altitudes to low latitudes and low altitudes, and the species increased. Following the retreat of the glaciers and the rise in temperature, the distribution area has gradually shrunk and has proliferated to this day, forming a modern distribution pattern. Spruce pollen and cones were found in the Late Pleistocene sediments in the plains of the south and southeast of the Qinling Mountains in China and in the low mountains of the southwest. Spruce is a tree with strong negative tolerance. It enjoys a cold and cold and humid climate. It forms a pure cold zone at high latitudes, a warm temperate zone from low latitudes to subtropical subalpines and subtropical subalpines and semi-shady slopes and valleys. Forest, or mixed with coniferous and coniferous forests with fir, larch, hemlock and some pine and broad-leaved trees with a cool climate. The trunk of the spruce is tall and straight, with few sections, slightly soft material, straight and uniform texture, fine structure, easy processing and good resonance performance. It can be used for construction, aircraft, musical instruments (piano, violin), boat, furniture, utensils, boxes, planed plywood and thin wood, as well as wood fiber industrial raw materials.


Many spruce trees are characterized by drooping branches, with the entire tree layered. The straight needle-like leaves spiral around the stem and are 2 to 3 cm in length. The leaves grow from the scorpion, and if they fall off, the cockroaches will remain. The wooden cones are suspended, the pebbles form a cylindrical shape, and there are inwardly curved bracts. When the cones are ripe, the bracts will open to allow the seeds to fall off. Spruce is a coniferous tree of tall trees, about 45 meters high, with a breast diameter of 1 meter, a narrow conical crown, bark gray, scaly-like shedding, large branches flat, small branches with hairs, and annual branches yellow-brown. The leaves are quadrangularly strip-shaped, curved, powdery greenish-green, apex-tip, with stomata lines on all sides, leaves 1 to 2 cm long, and leaves arranged in a spiral on the branches. Flowers are unisexual, monoecious, and flowering in May. The cones are mature in October. They have a periodic knot to achieve image. Generally, there is a bumpy year in 4-5 years. The seed quality of the year of apology is poor and the germination rate is low. The seed has a thousand-grain weight of 3.6-4.6 grams, 250,000-350000 seeds per kilogram of seed, and a germination rate of 20-45%. The seeds are usually dried in sacks. After 2-3 years, the germination rate is reduced by 8-15%, and the low temperature seal is dry. The germination rate in 5 years is only reduced by 5%.

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